Credit system and grades
In Sweden, the scope of an education is expressed in higher education credits (HECs) or credits. An academic year is normally 40 weeks, which corresponds to 60 credits in full-time study.
One full-time semester is equivalent to 30 credits.
Credits obtained before 1 July 2007 may be converted into HECs, with 1 credit translating into 1.5 HEC. Previously 1 credit corresponded to a week of full-time study. The system was revamped so that it conformed to the Bologna Process, making courses and programmes in Europe comparable.
Higher education credits in the Swedish educational system can be compared to the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits (ECTS credits), in which 60 credits is the equivalent of one year of full-time study.
In Sweden students receive grades on the courses they have completed. Each HEI determines which grading system it will use. The various grading systems have different number of grades within a grading system. Examples are fail, pass and pass with credit and A/B/C/D/E/Fx/F, respectively.
The EU has developed a system called the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) to facilitate comparing student grades from different countries. Some Swedish HEIs have introduced a 7-step grading scale that is comparable to that used in the ECTS.