Institutional reviews of the HEIs' quality assurance processes
Institutional reviews aim to confirm that the quality assurance processes ensure high quality courses and programmes and help to enhance the HEIs’ quality.
HEIs and the Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ) have a shared responsibility for quality assurance in higher education and research. Most quality assurance efforts are to be conducted by the HEIs. This requires HEIs to have systematic quality assurance processes that UKÄ is responsible for assessing.
The process for institutional reviews
The six assessment areas are:
- governance and organisation
- design, implementation and outcomes
- student and doctoral student perspective
- working life and collaboration
- gender equality
The basis for the review consists of a self-evaluation by the HEI, a student report, interviews, site visits, audit trails and other information. All assessment material for the review is to be weighed together.
1. The HEI’s self-evaluation. The HEIs are asked to describe, analyse and evaluate how they systematically ensure and follow up that they fulfil the assessment criteria for the different aspects and perspectives. Examples should be given to support the presentation.
2. Student report. The local student union has the option of submitting a written statement, known as a student report, in which the union gives its opinion of the quality assurance work at the HEI.
3. Two site visits. The purpose of the first site visit is partly to give the assessors a chance to ask questions based on the HEI's self-evaluation and partly to identify the focus areas which the assessment panel will follow during its second visit to the HEI's. Representatives from the HEI, students and any working life representatives which the HEI cooperates with will participate in the interviews. In conjunction with the first site visit, HEI representatives and UKÄ's analyst and assessment panel chair will go through the types of documentation that the HEI is to provide for each audit trail.
The purpose of the second site visit is to, via the selected audit trails, review whether the HEI's quality work is systematic so that the quality work improves and ensures that the educational acitivies are of high quality. At this second site visit the audit trails are studied and the assessment panel may interview the HEI's leadership, teachers, students, and any other staff groups and working life representatives with with the HEI collaborates.
4. Audit trails. To examine how quality assurance processes work in practice, the assessors examine one or more areas of focus. In this context, areas of focus are quality assurance processes, related to the aspects, perspectives and assessment criteria in the selected and assessed environment during the site visit. To see how quality assurance processes work in practice, the process is followed from the overall organisation at the HEI to the local level, that is, an environment which could consist of one or more courses and programmes (main field, subject area, programme) or other types of environments, like a library.
5. Other assessment material. Prior to reviews, UKÄ produces data for the HEI relevant to the aspects to be examined. This data could be previous inspections, appraisals of degree-awarding power applications, programme evaluations and national statistics showing student completion and establishment levels, and illustrating the HEI from a national perspective.
Assessments and reports
The assessment panel’s judgment on whether the HEI meets the assessment criteria for the reviewed aspect areas and perspectives results in a report that serves as the basis for UKÄ’s decision. Before UKÄ’s final decision, the panel’s preliminary judgement will be sent to the HEI for review.
The overall judgement of the HEI's quality assurance processes is given on a three-point scale:
- Approved quality assurance processes. The HEI's quality assurance processes are well described, well argued for and well-functioning in practice. They are systematic and effective at all levels of the HEI, from leadership level to department level. All assessment areas are judged as satisfactory.
- Approved quality assurance processes with reservations. The HEI's quality assurance processes are fairly well described, well argued for and well-functioning in practice. The decision clarifies which assessment areas are not satisfactory, which the HEI is to follow up and take action to remedy within a certain period of time. The assessment panel believes the HEI can rectify the deficiencies within two years.
- Quality assurance processes under review. There are several significant deficiencies in the HEI's quality assurance processes with regard to how they are described, argued for and how well they function in practice. The assessment panel believes the HEI cannot rectify the deficiencies within one year. UKÄ specifies that the HEI's quality assurance processes must be reviewed again in their entirety.
In the case of approved quality assurance processes
UKÄ believes it is important that even HEI's that receive approval for their quality assurance work have follow-ups. The forms for this type of follow-up include dialogue meetings, surveys and conferences.
In the case of approved quality assurance processes with reservations
UKÄ appoints an assessment panel that follows up the measures taken. Online interviews and site visits are included in the follow-up if needed. If the follow-up review leads to a positive assessment, the HEI's quality assurance processes in their entirety will be approved by the UKÄ. If the HEI still does not meet the assessment critieria in the follow-up review, an additional follow-up review will be conducted after a period agreed upon by the UKÄ and the HEI jointly on a case-by-case basis.
In the event of quality assurance processes under review
A new, complete review of the HEI's quality assurance processes will be carried out two years after UKÄ's decision is made. An assessment panel will be appointed to review the self-evaluation and other documentation. Online interviews and site visits are included in the new review. If the review results in a positive assessment, the HEI quality assurance processes in their entirety will be approved by the UKÄ. If the HEI's quality assurance processes are still under review after the new review, a follow-up will be carried out after a period agreed upon by the UKÄ and the HEI on a case-by-case basis. This also means that additional programmes at the HEI may be evaluated by UKÄ's representatives.